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Summary of Power Supply Voltage in Various Countries Factory

发布时间:2017-10-11  作者:admin
Abstract: This paper introduces the world factory using the voltage of power supply including phase-voltage and line-voltage and socket type, for convenient reading and studying export-oriented enterprises properly configured the voltage of power supply products, prevent the happening of the accident caused by the error distribution.
 
Key words: phase-voltage, line-voltage, power frequency
 
一、Summary
    Electricity is the major energy and power in modern industrial production, both easy to energy conversion from other forms, and easy to convert to other forms of energy to supply; Distribution is both simple and economic, and easy to control, is helpful to realize automation of production process. Therefore, it is widely used in the modern industry and the market economy .
Power status is more outstanding and important in industrial production, supply enough electricity to mechatronic products has greatly improved the capacity and efficiency, reduced cost as well as realize the production process automation and flexibility, as to the factory power supply voltage is very important to have a comprehensive knowledge and master.
At present, a lot of industrial electric main lines around the world for the frequency of 50HZ alternating current, the voltage has generally two kinds: 100-130V low voltage and high voltage of 220-240V. Low voltage system  pays attention to safety, high voltage system focuses on efficiency.
   China standard is 220V voltage, most European countries industry is 220V voltage, Britain is 240V, most products have 15% of the floating range, use in the UK there is no problem, in France and Italy with 220V voltage is given priority to, also use 110-130V voltage. For those strict voltage appliances or only can use 110-130V voltage, need to use the transformer change into 220V voltage. Many electrical itself can be suitable for the wide voltage of 110-240V, such appliances generally safe to use.
    Japan 100V / 60HZ industrial electricity is a standard type, national level to the transformer factory is 100V at the end of the power system, and 60HZ frequency is determined by the generator, generator turn faster than China’s. For these reasons, the Japanese original electrical equipment parts and others, they cannot be directly used to the Chinese industrial electricity when arrive in China, need a voltage regulator as normal use.
 
二、The Analysis of Different Voltage in Different Foreign Countries
 
    Why the different voltage? Different countries factory set different voltage of power supply, what is the effect? Voltage of 110V power distribution equipment, and its relative phase (line-voltage) and relatively (phase-voltage) voltage value is different, the difference between each country uses data inconsistency (about 10% - 25%), with 10% difference in our country. The high voltage of national power plants, after voltage regulator, power transmission system and distribution system is different, so the factory power voltage is different.
220V voltage power supply system advantages relative to 110V:
    First of all, the people know thermal effect if studied physical, the transmission loss is to point that transmission line loss in transit, the loss of power is the square of current multiply by the resistance, through this we can see that the resistance of the transmission lines is fixed. So reducing the transmission current, only to improve the voltage, then reducing transport current, to reduce the wastage. 220V to 110V voltage advantages is small power consumption, reduced the energy loss, ultra-high voltage transmission is based on the current heating effect theory.
    Secondly, the same power transmission, the transmission loss of the same case, the use of cross-sectional area is small, it's a surprising number, if the whole of China combined with the wires, then 220V to 110V saves much of copper and other metals.
    Thirdly, the 110V system working load can be reduced in relatively, and power transformation that a key and vulnerable node has more safety guarantee, it also accords with the situations of China's early.
    Fourthly, to steal, electric circuit and the theft of wires have certain threat.
Typical Example:
    For the specific LCD light: if rated power is same, rated voltage is 110V and 220V. When they work in their rated voltage, power consumption is same. But, for low-voltage distribution systems, 380/220V three-phase four-wire system has more advantages than 200/110V system. Conveying the same power wire cross-section can be reduced, it can save a large number of non-ferrous metals and in the same wire material’s condition, the loss of wire is smaller.
    Difference between China electricity system 220V/50HZ voltage and American industrial electricity system is the result of history: due to large area of electricity transmission, a large number of users and large number of voltage loss in China and because of China economic factors cause more input in electricity, in many area, inputting 220V voltage will become to 110V or less in client, you can imagine the actual voltage in client after ransporting110V voltage and how much crude of the wires need to add. That must be unimaginable for a developing country-China. These conditions have been greatly improved in present city. In fact, no country uses 220V for long-distance transmission, the minimum transmission grid in China is 10KV. According to theoretically analysis, there is a short distance from the low-voltage distribution box to the electricity place for real 220V, so, it is not lines loss.
    America is the first country to use the grid and start to use 110V voltage. Then continue to now. American industrial electricity system also been caused by history. Alternating Current Technology was invented by NIKOLA TESLA in America. The earliest commercial AC frequency is 60HZ and the earliest voltage is 110V. Due to the inventor is an American and achieved the fund by American Westinghouse Electric Company’s boss. Commercial AC power grids was launched for the first time in America. After the successful application of industrial AC, Alternating Current Generation Technology and Feed Technology became popularly in Europe. Except United Kingdom, metric units are used in Europe. In order to calculate conveniently, changed frequency to 50HZ.Then due to 110V voltage is low, more loss of power transmission, in order to improve the condition, using 220V voltage specifications in the European countries which the AC grid is not large-scale construction and no more burden. 110V voltage is changed by 220V voltage, the technology is easier, so European countries became the AC grid standard of 220V/50HZ. There is no standard for China’s earliest AC power grid, just partial little grid. Equipments were provided by developed industrialized countries, there are many specifications. After the basic reunification of China, China choose the metric system for metrological standards, so the construction of the grid began to fully shift to the basis of the metric system, so power grid construction began to change to the basis of the metric system. After 1949, China's industrialization changed to Former Soviet Union Model, power grid construction also based on the Former Soviet Union standards, but Former Soviet Union used European standards, so 220V/50HZ became China’s grid standard. Due to historical reasons, Northeast and a part of original concession area in Shanghai used 110V voltage for standard. Until the late 60s of last century, China only unified to use 220V voltage.
 
 
三、Third, the analysis of national power supply
    It can save more wires when use higher voltage and same wire can transport more power. In the early stages of building the grid, our country is still relatively poor, it is wise for saving. But with the development of society, due to high voltage of more and more electronic products increases the cost of switches or electronic components. If we choose 100-120V(AC) at the beginning of developing the grid, it can reduce more cost in electrical appliances, more safe and the harmonics of the chopper circuit will be reduced, even the power line interference source will be reduced a lot. Now, electronic becomes more and more nervous, using frequency technology of power equipment is also increasing. Because the power factor of rectifier circuit is low, so improve the application of power factor FPC widely, 120/230VAC power supply circuit has more advantages than 220/400VAC.
     For frequency, the efficiency of 60HZ is higher and volume ratio of motor power is smaller than 50HZ. It can save more materials of the manufacturing motor, but the requirement of magnetic core is higher. Recently, voltage for indoor use is two type, 100-130V and 220-240V. 100V, 110-130V are classified as low voltage, such as America and Japan, etc, so its mechatronic devices are designed for this low voltage and pay more attention on safety. 220-240V are classified as high voltage, it includes 220V of China and 240V of United Kingdom, pay more attention to efficiency. There are just two countries using 100V voltage: Japan and Korea. Around 30 countries use 110-130V voltage, such as America, Canada, Panama, Cuba and Mexico, etc. Around 120 countries use 220-240V voltage, such as China, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Singapore, Italy, Spain, Greece, Austria, the Netherlands, Thailand, Norway, India and other countries.
    In the countries who adopting 220-240V, have some place need and use 110-130V, such as Sweden, Russia, in fact not only voltage is not the same, but also many different appliance standards in many cases, for example, color TV formats have PAL system and NTSC system, there are many reason to show like this:
    Political factors: during the cold war, the socialist camp headed by former Soviet union; the capitalist camp headed by USA. The socialist camp surely is different from the capitalist camp, the socialist camp standard (especially east European including China) follow Soviet Union. Taiwan and many other countries such as Canada. Follow USA standard; Hong Kong is a British colony, is equivalent to the British standard.
    Economic factors:man-made barriers to protect their own national industry disenable other countries’ electronic products into their own national by set different standards. artificial technical barriers close door on products of other countries.
    Technical factors: developed countries keep security to hold advanced technology on their own hands, other countries only can develop and research by their own and set their standards as the global economic integration to speed up, the unity of the standard is the trend, but as the reason of history and reality, it can’t be unified all place, as many standards setting is close to international standards. Voltage high or low is considering two factors: one is safe, the other is efficiency. Higher voltage, the same power of electric loss was low(there will be also loss when transmit while using low resistivity of copper wires) then high efficient; but at the same time, safety will be relatively less 220V which we used, as long as use common insulating materials (such as plastic, rubber, etc) can effectively prevent to get an electric shock, so use it.
    As for the main industry generally adopts three-phase alternating current, the line-voltage (the voltage between the two phase) is 380V, same voltage level as civil voltage 220V, is a phase line with a zero line (phase-voltage) between the voltage amplitude for 1/1.732 of the line-voltage. In the long-distance transmission, due to technical reasons, we used 110KV before, later with 220KV power transmission, have increased to 500KV voltage level at the present stage that greatly reduced the loss of transmission line. As voltage increase, the insulation requirements are higher, especially the ultra-high voltage transmission, do not allow the wire fell to the ground, or walking on the nearby step can cause electric shock.
 
Conclusion: After joining the WTO, China's export trade continues to increase substantially, foreign trade enterprises accounted for the proportion of the market economy becomes larger and larger, many foreign trade companies have to invest the market from southeast Asia, Western Europe, North America and expand to the Middle East, Eastern Europe, South America, so for foreign trade enterprise exports of mechatronic products needs more attention and grasp main exporter of industrial exporter of voltage and voltage adapter, which can avoid some unnecessary safety accident and dangers. Due to limited experience not auspicious to check one by one and only expect this to offer some reference.

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